Antagonistic States in Multilateral Forums: India and Pakistan in SAARC and SCO




antagonistic, SAARC, SCO, India, Pakistan.


This research paper examines India and Pakistan's divergent behavior displayed within two regional organizations, namely the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Despite their longstanding animosity, both countries actively participated in SCO summits while demonstrating reluctance to engage with each other within SAARC since 2019. By investigating the underlying reasons for this divergent behavior, we analyze the implications for SCO in the context of the Indo-Pak arch rivalry. Employing game theory, precisely the prisoner's dilemma, we examine the dynamics of cooperation and conflict. Through this analysis, we uncover the distinctive functioning of multilateralism within SAARC and SCO, providing insights into the influence of India-Pakistan relations on these regional institutions. The findings of this study enhance our comprehension of the complexities surrounding multilateral cooperation and the significant role arch rivalry plays in shaping regional dynamics.


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How to Cite

Waggy, M. M., & Hassan, D. . K. W. . (2023). Antagonistic States in Multilateral Forums: India and Pakistan in SAARC and SCO. Cappadocia Journal of Area Studies, 5(2), 110–126.



Research articles